Drinking Water Plant (DWP): Ultimate Guide [2023]

Drinking Water Plant (DWP): Ultimate Guide [2023]


Drinking water is one of the most essential requirements for human survival, and access to clean and safe drinking water is a basic human right. However, with the increasing population, industrialization, and urbanization, the demand for drinking water has increased tremendously. As a result, many regions around the world are facing a scarcity of clean drinking water. To address this issue, Drinking Water Plants (DWPs) have been established to purify and treat the water before it is distributed to households, industries, and businesses. This article provides an overview of DWPs, their functions, and the technologies used for water purification and treatment.

What is a Drinking Water Plant? 

A Drinking Water Plant (DWP) is a facility that treats and purifies water from various sources, such as surface water (lakes, rivers, and reservoirs), groundwater, or seawater, to make it suitable for drinking. The treatment process involves the removal of contaminants, such as bacteria, viruses, algae, and sediment, as well as dissolved chemicals, such as salts, minerals, and organic compounds. The purified water is then disinfected with chlorine, ozone, or ultraviolet (UV) radiation before being distributed to the consumers.

Functions of a Drinking Water Plant 

The main functions of a DWP are as follows:

Water intake:

The first step in the treatment process is the collection of water from the source. Depending on the source of water, the intake may involve pumping the water from a well, dam, or reservoir, or diverting the water from a river or stream.


The water is then screened to remove large objects, such as leaves, twigs, and debris.


The pre-treatment stage involves the removal of suspended particles, such as sand, silt, and sediment, through the process of coagulation and flocculation. Coagulants, such as aluminum sulfate or ferric chloride, are added to the water to neutralize the charge on the suspended particles, causing them to clump together and form larger particles, known as flocs. Flocculants, such as polymers, are then added to the water to enhance the formation of flocs.


The flocs settle to the bottom of the sedimentation tanks, where they form a layer of sludge, while the clarified water is removed from the top.


The water is then passed through a series of filters, such as sand, gravel, and activated carbon filters, to remove any remaining particles and impurities.


The final stage of the treatment process involves disinfection of the water to kill any remaining bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms. Chlorine, ozone, or UV radiation may be used for disinfection.


The purified and disinfected water is then distributed to the consumers through a network of pipes and storage tanks.

Types of Drinking Water Plants 

There are various types of DWPs, depending on the source of water and the level of treatment required. Some of the common types of DWPs are:

Surface Water Treatment Plant: 

This type of DWP is used for treating water from surface sources, such as rivers, lakes, and reservoirs. The treatment process involves screening, coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection.

Groundwater Treatment Plant:

This type of DWP is used for treating water from underground sources, such as wells and boreholes. The treatment process involves pre-chlorination, aeration, filtration, and disinfection.

Seawater Treatment Plant: 

This type of DWP is used for treating seawater to make it suitable for drinking. The treatment process involves pre-treatment, des

Conventional Water Treatment Plant: 

This is the most common type of DWP. It uses a multi-stage process that includes coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection to purify water. The coagulation process involves adding chemicals to the water to cause the impurities to clump together. Sedimentation allows the clumps to settle to the bottom of the tank, and filtration removes the remaining impurities. Finally, disinfection kills any remaining bacteria or viruses.

Direct Filtration Plant: 

This type of DWP is similar to conventional plants, but the sedimentation step is skipped. Instead, the water passes through filters that remove larger impurities. After that, disinfection takes place to kill any remaining bacteria or viruses.

Slow Sand Filtration Plant: 

This type of DWP uses a bed of sand, which acts as a natural filter, to purify water. The water slowly passes through the sand bed, and the impurities are trapped in the sand grains. Over time, a layer of bacteria forms on the top of the sand bed, which helps to further purify the water. Slow sand filtration plants are less common than conventional plants due to their slower process and larger land requirement.

Reverse Osmosis Plant: 

This type of DWP uses a membrane to filter out impurities. The water is forced through a semi-permeable membrane, which allows water molecules to pass through but blocks larger impurities such as minerals and ions. Reverse osmosis is commonly used in areas with high levels of dissolved solids and is often used in combination with other treatment processes.

Ultraviolet (UV) Disinfection Plant: 

This type of DWP uses UV light to kill bacteria and viruses in the water. The water is exposed to a UV light source, which damages the DNA of any microorganisms present in the water. UV disinfection is often used in conjunction with other treatment processes such as filtration.

In conclusion, there are several types of Drinking Water Plants, each with its unique features and processes. The choice of DWP depends on several factors such as the quality of the source water, the required level of treatment, and the available resources. The aim of all DWPs is to provide safe and clean drinking water to the public.

Final Words 

Drinking Water Plants (DWP) play a vital role in ensuring that we have access to safe and clean drinking water. The purification process is critical to removing impurities that could cause health problems, and the choice of DWP is based on several factors, such as the quality of the source water, the level of treatment required, and available resources. The different types of DWPs, including Conventional Water Treatment Plants, Direct Filtration Plants, Slow Sand Filtration Plants, Reverse Osmosis Plants, and Ultraviolet Disinfection Plants, each offer unique features and processes to achieve safe and clean drinking water. Regardless of the type of DWP used, the end goal is to provide clean and safe drinking water to the public, ensuring public health and wellbeing.

FAQ’s About Drinking Water Plant (DWP)

What is a Drinking Water Plant?

Drinking water treatment plants are used to get rid of dangerous elements and organisms, protect the public majority’s health, and supply the environment, humans, and other living things with clean, drinkable water.

What are the Benefits of Drinking Water Treatment Plant?

Water treatment plants remove your tap water of more than 2,100 different types of pollutants, arsenic, bacteria, and too much chlorine. Your body may suffer negative impacts from these pollutants. For example, excessive chlorine drinking can cause rectal, colon, and bladder cancer.

How Much Does a Drinking Water Plant Cost in Bangladesh?

The cost of WTP in Bangladesh might range from about 50,000 to 100,000 Tk. Because there are many different kinds of water treatment plants, their costs can also vary. These facilities might have varied sizes, lengths of time, and levels of performance.

Why Do We Need Drinking Water Treatment Plant?

Water treatment helps make water clean, safe to drink, and used for other uses by eliminating contaminants and dangerous materials from the water. Tragically, approximately 2 billion people worldwide use untreated water for drinking or obtain their water from unreliable or contaminated sources.

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