Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP): Everything You Need To Know

Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP): Everything You Need To Know

One of the most important elements used in all kinds of industry is water. It is used for many industrial processes. It can be used for cleaning, cooling, heat exchange, compressing water, and other purposes. However, the water used in industry is not drunk. As a result, wastewater is produced by practically all industries, which calls for immediate action. Therefore illegal wastewater discharge can harm the environment nearby. Before being released into the environment, “Effluent,” or by-products, can be treated as wastewater in many manufacturing industries.

Effluent is the stream that leaves a chemical reactor and, in engineering, is defined as the outflow of water or gas from a natural body of water, a man-made building, or both. It may also be described as Waste water, whether treated or untreated, that drains from a treatment facility, a sewage line, or an industrial outlet.

So, with the help of an Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP), also known as a Sewage Treatment Plant, waste water, or untreated effluent, is converted into treated effluent (STP). The environment is then safely supplied with clean water.

Prior to being released into the environment or used again, waste water that has been contaminated in some way by anthropogenic industrial or commercial activity is treated using mechanisms and procedures known as industrial waste water treatment. Its goal is to create a solid waste stream (also known as treated sludge) that can be disposed of or reused and a fluid waste material (also known as treated effluent) that is safe for the environment (usually as farm fertilizer).

Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP)?

An effluent treatment plant is a unit where wastewater is processed using a variety of techniques for reuse or safe disposal into the environment. While maintaining a clean environment, this procedure lowers the demand for fresh water.

There are four different methods for operating an effluent treatment plant:

1) First step: Solids, oil, and grease removal.

2) Second step: Elimination of floating and settable substances, such as suspended solids and organic matter.

3) Third step: Remove biodegradable organic stuff from the process at the secondary level (BOD).

4) Fourth step: Removing leftover suspended solids and dissolved solids is done in the fourth stage.

Benefits of Effluent Treatment Plant

Strict laws regarding waste and discharge apply to all manufacturing enterprises. Non-compliance may result in a fine and pollution control board involvement with activities.

A wastewater treatment facility may be advantageous for:

  • Remain compliant
  • Take away the municipal fine
  • By recovering industrial resources from the waste stream for recycling, supply costs can be decreased.
  • reduce the amount of water used for processing
  • Minimize the expense of off-site treatment and transporting

The process of designing a wastewater treatment plant involves first analyzing untreated waste water to determine how best to use the treated effluent. The wastewater treatment plan’s design is also quite site- and industry-specific.

The design of the effluent treatment plant should be cost-effective, need less maintenance and labor, and handle non-hazardous industrial waste water.

Also, these facilities must to have functions like pH adjustment, aerated lagoons, polishing/infiltration ponds, sedimentation/facultative basins, etc.

Which Parameters and Standards Apply to ETP?

The government-set national standards for waste water must be met by industrial effluent. The design and operation of an effluent treatment plant (ETP) or sewage treatment plant (STP) should ensure that the waste water is treated to these criteria.

The ETP Parameters with standards are as follows:






Suspended Solids






Total Dissolved Solids



Total Ammonical Nitrogen



BOD 3 Days, 27 0C



Oil & Grease



Chloride as Cl



Sulphate as SO4









Lead as pb



Mercury as Hg



Nickel as Ni



Zinc as Zn



Hexavalent Chromium Cr+6



Total Metal mg/l


Maintenance & Operation of ETP

Once built or established, the effluent treatment plant requires operation and maintenance by qualified and experienced people to serve efficient and effective operation of the ETP. Perfect Pollucon Services is providing a qualified operator & supervisor who maintains all the records of the operation and attends to day-to-day troubleshooting.

Maintenance and operation of sewage or effluent treatment plants Staff Needs:

The following is a general list of the amount of manpower needed for ETP or STP operation and maintenance:

Plant manager: 

A plant manager is a person with environmental engineering or science training and a graduate or postgraduate degree who has worked in a similar plant for at least three years (s).

Plant Operator(s): 

Must have at least a High School diploma in science and be in good physical and mental health. Consist of a group of skilled and trained workers who work in shifts to operate and maintain screens, primary sedimentation equipment, pumps, aerators, valves, etc.

Laboratory Analyst: 

This position requires a candidate to have at least a B.Sc. in Chemistry, be knowledgeable about the chemistry of water and waste water, and have training in the preparation of lab chemicals, use of lab equipment, collection and storage of water and waste water samples, and analysis for a variety of environmental parameters, including pH, SS, BOD, COD, and TDS.

To properly run ETP or STP and provide the results desired by the appropriate government, the above staff is used.

The Beginning of ETP or STP Operation and Maintenance is:

  • Separation through screening, sedimentation, filtration, neutralization, coagulation, flocculation, absorption, adsorption, chemical reaction, oxidation/reduction, dissolution, ion exchange, and chlorination are a few unit operations and processes.
  • Operation of equipment such screens (coarse/fine bar screens, manually or mechanically operated), sumps and pumping stations with pumps, motors and panels (centrifugal horizontal/vertical turbine), valves (sluice gates, non-return, reflux), pipes/specials and pipe joints, and grit removal units. Secondary Settling Tanks, Secondary Sludge Sumps, Pumps, Sludge Thickeners, Sludge Digesters, Gas Production, Sludge Handling, and Drying. Primary Sedimentation / Settling Tanks, Scraping Mechanisms, Sludge withdrawal, Sludge Sumps, Sludge Pumps, Aeration tanks, and Aerators.
  • Pump and motor maintenance, electrical panel maintenance (starters, meters (Energy, Voltage, Amperage, Power factor), Blowing out fuses, valves, gates, scraping bridge trolleys, aerators, reduction gears, open-air weather motor casings, sprocket wheels, and chains for mechanical grit and screen removing tools are all examples of blowing out equipment.

Frequently Asked Questions: Effluent Treatment Plant

What is Effluent Treatment Plant?

An effluent treatment plant is a unit where wastewater is processed using a variety of techniques for reuse or safe disposal into the environment. While maintaining a clean environment, this procedure lowers the demand for fresh water.

How Does ETP Work?

Three categories make up the wastewater treatment plant’s operation. Sludge and liquid are separated during first treatment using sedimentation tanks. To lower the bacterial population, secondary treatment involves the removal of biological or organic products. When tertiary wastewater treatment is used to remove dangerous microbiological pollutants from wastewater, physical and chemical procedures are frequently combined.

How Many Levels of Treatment are there in ETP?

The process of treating wastewater consists of three levels: primary (separate sludge from liquid), secondary (decrease biological population), and tertiary water treatment (to reduce harmful Chemicals).

What is the Use of the ETP Plant?

Most businesses in a variety of industries use effluent treatment plants (ETPs) to purify water and remove any toxic and non-toxic materials or chemicals from it so that it can be reused or released in the environment with less environmental harm.

What is ETP Plant Maintenance Checklist?

ETP Plant checklists are a set of variables that should be verified periodically to maintain everything in order. This method of inspection makes examination more focused, accurate, and effective. Depending on the type of plant and the manager’s experience, there are many different sorts of checklists.

Social Share
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

four × 2 =

Related Posts