Flocculants are used in combina̬on with coagulants to agglomerate suspended par̬cles for removal by filtra̬on. This technique is used extensively in all types of surface waters to reduce the silt density index (SDI) and minimize membrane fouling. Although organic ca̬onic flocculants are par̬cularly effec̬ve, their widespread use in membrane applica̬ons is limited because of perceived problems with flocculent fouling at the membrane surface causing irreparable damage. Reference material from some of the major membrane manufacturers on the use of flocculants is given. Autopsies show that more than 50% of membrane fouling is caused by inadequate, deficient or poorly operated pre‐treatment systems.
|Genefloc ABF||Bio‐fouled water source, algae/bio‐stat|
|Genefloc GPF||Membrane compa̬ble flocculant|
|Genefloc PWF||Drinking water approved|